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Sadik, A. (2010). An integrated Web 2.0 portfolio model for university students. In progress

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Sadik, A. (2010). The development and usability evaluation of a standards-based gradebook for faculty. submitted for publicatiuon

Abstract
The use of standard-based grading and reporting tools is essential to ensure that faculty assessment meets acceptable levels of quality and standardization. This study reports the design, development and evaluation of a standards-based gradebook (RealGrade) for the faculty at Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. The rapid applications development model (RAD) was implemented to develop early versions of the gradebook. The Gradebook Usability Questionnaire (GUQ) and a series of individual interviews were used to measure participants’ reactions toward the usability of the gradebook and determine the extent to which the prototype is usable. The results revealed that participants found the gradebook effective and efficient in facilitating the process of standards-based grading and communicating grades with students at the University. In addition, they favored the design, flexibility and ease of use of the gradebook. Further examinations of mean differences among participants according to their computer experience and teaching experience were conducted.

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Sadik, A. (2009). Improving pre-service teachers’ visual literacy through flickr. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 91-100.

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact on pre-service teachers' visual literacy skills when they take advantage of Flickr, an online photo hosting and sharing community. Two approaches were used to develop visual literacy skills of pre-service teachers through Flickr. The first was to help them decode visuals through practicing analysis techniques, and interpreting and creating meaning from visual stimuli. The second was to help them encode visuals as a tool for communication and sharing of knowledge. Visual Literacy Test, participants' Flickr logs, Photograph Evaluation Instrument and constructed interviews were used to assess improvement in participants' visual literacy skills, the degree of engagement in sharing activities and measure perceptions toward participation in Flickr community. The results of analysis revealed that pre-service teachers' interpretation, understanding, and appreciating the meaning of visual messages skills were enhanced through online sharing and interaction
through Flickr and they were able to communicate more effectively through applying the basic skills of visual literacy.

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Sadik, A. (2008). Digital storytelling: A meaningful technology-integrated approach for engaged student learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(4),487-506.

Abstract
Although research emphasizes the importance of integrating technology into the curriculum, the use of technology can only be effective if teachers themselves possess the expertise to use technology in a meaningful way in the classroom. The aim of this study was to assist teachers in developing teaching and learning through the application of a particular digital technology. Students were encouraged to work through the process of producing their own digital stories using MS Photo Story, while being introduced to desktop production and editing tools. They also presented, published and shared their own stories with other students in the class. Quantitative and qualitative instruments, including digital story evaluation rubric, integration of technology observation instruments and interviews for evaluating the effectiveness of digital storytelling into learning were implemented to examine the extent to which students were engaged in authentic learning tasks using digital storytelling. The findings from the analysis of students-produced stories revealed that overall, students did well in their projects and their stories met many of the pedagogical and technical attributes of digital stories. The findings from classroom observations and interviews revealed that despite problems observed and reported by teachers, they believed that the digital storytelling projects could increase students’ understanding of curricular content and they were willing to transform their pedagogy and curriculum to include digital storytelling.
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Sadik, A. (2007). The Readiness of Faculty Members to Develop and Implement E-Learning: The Case of an Egyptian University. International Journal on E-Learning, 6 (3), 433-453.

Abstract
Adopting e-learning represents one of the major problems in faculty development plans at Egyptian universities. In this study, a survey was developed, validated and carried out to examine the readiness of academic staff at South Valley University in Egypt to develop and implement e-learning in their teaching. The survey was also used to determine how support systems and procedures for staff could be further developed to enable the University to make the most effective and appropriate use of learning technologies to enhance the student and staff experience. The results revealed that the majority of respondents, who came from a wide range of faculties across the University, considered themselves to have limited competence and little experience in e-learning. However, they perceived e-learning to be useful in general and to have the potential to support their teaching-related activities in particular.

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Sadik, A. (2006) From National Challenges to a Global Community: Establishing and Implementing a Low-Cost Learning Object Repository for Egyptian Teachers. Paper presented at the 2nd International Open & Distance Learning Symposium, 13-15 September, Anadolu University, Turkey.

Abstract
Within the last five years governments and education authorities worldwide developed and implemented approaches to facilitate access to a wide range of quality digital resources and reduce the costs of production. This paper reports on a study which invited school teachers and university academics in Egypt, as a developing and Arabic-speaking country, to cooperate in establishing a learning object repository to store, locate and share quality learning objects for class teaching and e-learning programs. The proposed solution is originally a vendor hosted web-based groupware, file management and sharing system that meets the basic criteria of instructional learning object repositories, called eStudio. Motivators and inhibitors to using the repository, factors that determine locating, using and sharing of learning objects within the repository and their qualities are assessed to help in developing repositories that demonstrate an understanding of the existing needs and the work practices of Egyptian teachers and other user groups.

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Sadik, A. (2006). Factors Influencing Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Personal Use and School Use of Computers: New Evidence From a Developing Nation. Evaluation Review, 30(1), 86-113.

Abstract
This study reports on the Arabization and empirical evaluation of two standard scales to assess Egyptian teachers’ attitudes toward personal use and school use of computers. No similar instruments were translated and empirically evaluated in an Arabic-speaking community before. Data provided by a sample of 443 teachers support the reliability and validity of the two Arabic versions and the body of the research evidence which suggests that computer attitude is multidimensional. The relationship between gender, years of teaching experience, computer use, computer experience and computer attitudes are examined as well. Implications for pre-service and in-service teacher preparation in Egypt are provided in this study.

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Sadik, A. (2006). The Reality of Web-Based Interaction in an Egyptian Distance Education Course. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 5(1).

Abstract
This paper reports the results of a study conducted to evaluate the reality of interaction in a web-based distance education course. The learners were Egyptian first-grade secondary school students (15-16 years old) and the learning subject is mathematics. To investigate students’ interactions via the Web, a Web-based learning environment was designed and implemented, called Wired Class, based on Willis’ (1995, 2000) R2D2 instructional design model and constructivist principles. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to investigate the quantity and quality of learner-learner and learner-teacher interaction based on Mason's (1991)
model.

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Sadik, A. and Reisman, S.(2004). Design and Implementation of a Web-Based Learning Environment: Lessons Learned. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 5(3), 157-171.

Abstract
This article presents sets of observations and recommendations for Web-based distance learning, based on formative and summative performance and opinion data collected from participants involved in the design, development, and utilization of Wired Class, a Web-based learning environment that was developed to teach mathematics to Egyptian secondary school students. The discussion focuses on issues related to the nature of (1) Web-based learning materials, (2) the spectrum of learning/teaching interactions, (3) the Web as a learning environment, and (4) costs associated with delivering Web-based instruction. Examples are used to illustrate the basis for recommendations that evolved from the work on which this article is based.

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Sadik, A. (2004) The measurement of attitudes toward personal use and school use of computers among Egyptian teachers. Paper presented at the Education Development & Informatics Conference, Cairo University, 26-27 September, Egypt.

Abstract
This paper reports the results of a cost analysis conducted as a part of a large study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based
learning environment. To conduct the cost analysis, the resources required to design and deliver the learning environment and their costs/market prices were identified and the mathematical modelling approach was used to calculate the capital fixed costs, variable current costs and unit cost per student. The analysis of the cost structure and cost relationships of the learning environment developed in this study showed that the costs resulting from using the Internet to deliver instruction are affected by many design and implementation-related factors, such as the quality of on-line materials, the instructional design of the programme, enrolment, number of on-line modules, course lifetime and the type of the Web server and Internet connection.

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Sadik, A. (2004). The Design Elements of Web-Based Learning Environments. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1(8).

Abstract
Constructing on-line learning environments requires designing and developing various elements. These elements should be available to deliver instruction, enhance the quality of learning, facilitate interactions and support the learner. Examples of these elements are tutorials and assessment components, instructional support utilities, interaction tools, management and monitoring tools and help and support topics. In this article, the tutorial component, for example, consists of modules and lessons. Each lesson is arranged in a hierarchy of new concepts self-assessment, exercises, links to related Web sites and discussion areas. Management and administration tools are designed to help the on-line tutor to control/understand how the on-line class operates and to track students’ progress. In addition, they help students to register with the on-line class, access course grades and edit work. The interaction component is designed to facilitate student-tutor, student-student and student-content interaction.

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